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Turkey Travel GuideAll About Travelling
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Turkey Travel Guide

Dec, 04 || 1 Comment | Tags: , , ,

Turkey Travel Guide

Turkey today was created in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, following the abolition of the sultanate and the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. Turkey adopted a series of reforms aiming at modernization of economic, social and political (the separation of state from religion, Western European legal system, adopting the Latin alphabet, the equal rights of women, creating a national industry) and promotes a policy of neutrality and good the vicinity. In 1945 Turkey became a member of the UN, and in 1952, a NATO member. In 1974, Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus, in defense of the Turkish Cypriots, leading to division of the island and damage relations with Greece, which, though still strained, began to improve in recent years. Turkey is facing terrorist activities of the Kurdistan Workers Party, trying to get an independent Kurdistan.

Turkey Geography

In southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia. It is a country lying on two continents, located almost entirely in Anatolia peninsula, 3% of its territory located in the Balkan Mountains region of southeastern Europe. Bosphorus strait that separates Asia from south-west of South-east is in Turkey. Anatolia is situated between the Black Sea to the north and south Mediterranean, Aegean and Marmara Sea to the west. Some geographers consider Turkey as a part of Europe because of certain cultural characteristics, political and historical. Due to its geographical position between Europe and Asia and between three seas, Turkey has been a historic crossroads, the homeland and battlefield of many great civilizations and trade center.


Turkey has borders with eight countries. Northwest of Bulgaria and Greece, north of the Black Sea, Georgia and Armenia to U.S. in Iran is in S Iraq, Syria, Mediterranean, and Sea V Ege.

Turkey Relief

The central part of the country is occupied by the Anatolian Plateau, with altitudes ranging between 800 and 1500 m, framed by arched mountain ranges: Pontic Mountains and Taurus Mountains in the north and south Antitaurus. Plateau extends westward with parallel mountain ridges (reaching 2500 m altitude), and it joins with the Armenian plateau, high mountains looking, fragmented depressions (Ararat plain, depression that formed Lake Van, etc. ), which rises above the cones of extinct volcano (Ararat, 5156 m). Narrow coastal plains communicate with the interior plateau with deep valleys carved into the Pontic and Taurus Mountains. In the European part of Thrace wavy plateau stretching east.
Turkey is affected by strong earthquakes, especially in the north.

Climate of Turkey

Subtropical, with summer drought in the plateau, the climate has a pronounced continental, Mediterranean in coastal regions.

Tourism in Turkey

Turkey is divided into 81 provinces (Iller in Turkish; singular it). Each province is divided into subprovincii (ilçeler; singular ilçe). The province usually bears the same name as its capital, considered central subprovincia, exceptions are Hatay (capital: Antakya), Kocaeli (capital: Izmit) and Sakarya (capital: Adapayari). The largest provinces are: Istanbul 11 ​​million Ankara 4 million Izmir 3.5 million, 2.1 million Bursa, Konya Province 2.2 million, 1.8 million Adana Province.
The capital city of Turkey is Ankara, but the historical capital Istanbul remains the financial, economic and cultural country.

Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbul (formerly Constantinople was Byzantium) is the largest city of Turkey. The only city in the world that takes place on the shores of two continents, Europe and Asia, Istanbul has a population of about 14 million inhabitants. The city was founded by Roman emperor Constantine the Great, on the former Greek colony Byzantium. Under the name of Constantinople, the city served as capital of the Byzantine Empire for more than a millennium. In 1453, it was conquered by the Turks, and later became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Only on 28 March 1930, the city’s official name became Istanbul.
Old Town is located on the shore of the Bosphorus Strait, which separates Europe from Asia and the Black Sea – the Sea of ​​Marmara. Today, the city is much bigger and covers both the European and Asian. Although no longer the capital of Turkey, Istanbul has a major position in the economy and culture of the country, the most important international trade center of Turkey.
Old popular name of Istanbul is Constantinople

Sights in Turkey

Blue Mosque, built between 1609-1616 for Sultan Ahmet I by Mehmet Aga, one of Sinan’s sons. Inside the mosque is decorated with Arabian and the walls are covered with floral motifs.

Hagia Sophia, Byzantine place of worship completed in 537 AD Byzantine cathedral old town was turned into a mosque after 1453, the year when the Ottomans conquered Constantinople. The initial building was destroyed in a fire in 532. Emperor Justinian I ordered the reconstruction of the cathedral which was completed in 537, although it continued to trim 563. Thus Hagia Sophia became a place of pilgrimage, and was decorated with gold mosaics, chandeliers and paintings by Cris religious famous for smoothness with which they were made. It was converted into a Catholic cathedral by the first Crusaders in 1204, then became Orthodox in 1261. In 1453, Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque and minarets were added, the gold was stolen, the mosaics were covered with cement. He worked as a mosque until 1930, and in 1935 became a museum.

Topkapi Palace was the residence of the sultans of the years 1465-1853. The complex of buildings making up the Topkapi Palace takes its name from “Gate gun”, which is located on the shore of the Bosphorus, Sultan gate that came out of the palace garden and could walk on the Bosphorus. Construction began in 1459 by order of Sultan Mehmet II, conqueror of Constantinople. In 1853, the royal court was moved to the Dolmabahçe Palace. After serving as harem up in 1909, the palace was declared a museum in 1924. Topkapi was the residence of the Sultan, the government and elite troops of the empire. School buildings include the Palace of the Ottoman divan, harem. Among the exhibits are found armor, weapons, jewelry, expensive clothes, the largest diamond in the world, carriages, cutlery, furniture expensive.

Dolmabahçe Palace was the residence of sultans after 1853. Among the exhibits is number one of the biggest chandeliers in the world (4 tons), furniture inlaid with ivory, valuable paintings, Persian rugs, collections of weapons and armor, jewelry.

Galata Bridge over the Bosporus – linking Asia and Europe.
The oldest institution of higher education in Istanbul University (1453).

Ankara (Angora known until 1930, and Ancyra classical period) is Turkey’s capital and second largest city of the country after Istanbul. It has a population of 3.482 million inhabitants (2003). At the same time is the capital of the province of the same name.
Ankara is an important commercial and industrial center. It is also the trade center for surrounding agricultural area. Before becoming the capital city, Ankara was famous for its goat wool (Angora wool).
Located in central Anatolia, is an important node as figuratively, for trade and literally, the center of Turkish roads and railways. It has several universities, the National Library, the Archaeological Museum, the Ethnographic Museum and the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mausoleum, the most important personalities of the twentieth century Turkey, is also located in Ankara.


The modern city Izmir (Smyrna before) is the city and port in Western Turkey, Izmir provincial capital, located in the bay of the same name. Izmir is one of the largest ports in Turkey. It is one of the largest industrial centers, here are produced clothes, soaps, food, etc.. Founded in 11 BC sec Aeolieni by a Greek tribe, the city was conquered by the Ionian approx. 688 BC. Later in sec 7 BC the city was devastated by Lydienii of Asia Minor. Antigonus I, king of Macedonia BC restored the city in 4 sec The city was fortified and improved by Lysimachus, one of the generals of Alexander the Great King. The city was conquered by the Romans and became one of the first centers of Christianity. During the 4th century the e.n. the city was part of the Byzantine Empire, and in sec 15 en was led by the Turks. In 1402 Izmir was devastated by the Mongols under Tamerlane and returned in 1424 after the Turks. After World War, the Greeks took Izmir. In 1922 the Turks recaptured after the Treaty of Lausanne, the city returned to Turkey.

Old cities of Turkey

Troy, ancient city of Greece, located south of Istanbul, Canakkale Strait was founded after the Bronze Age, aprox.3000 BC. The city of Troy was the subject of Trojan War described in Homer’s poems. Thought the city was a legend until 1870, when archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann began excavations under existing stone walls of the old city.

Pergamon, known as Pergamos, aprox.t ancient city located 20 km from the coast to Asia Minor, the capital of ancient kingdom of Pergamum (241-133 BC). The town developed when General Lysimachos decided that the town be the place to store his treasure. Under another leader Pergamon Attalus became artistic and educational center of Asia Minor. His son Eumenes II
managed to conquer much of Asia Minor. He gave orders to build the altar of Zeus, built a library to rival the Library of Alexandria. Conquered by the Romans, Pergamon remained one of the largest and most beautiful cities of ancient world and remained the capital of the Roman province of Asia Minor. In the old town, now city of Bergama is that, even in the center houses some of the most impressive Roman relics: a theater, a anfiteatru a Roman Hippodrome


At a negligible distance from the great metropolis is another ancient city, Ephesus, one of the 12 cities of ions near the city of Izmir in ancient Greece. It was a great river port at the mouth of Küçük Menderes and served as a starting point of caravans Why trade with the rest of Asia Minor. It is famous since ancient times for the temple dedicated to Goddess Artemis, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The city was one of the earliest centers of Christianity, the proof being the BIS. St. John the Evangelist in sec 4 e.n. Church rebuilt by Emperor Justinian I in the 6th century Bizantinristian en . Probably founded by Ionians in sec. 11 BC, Ephesus was conquered several times by the Lydians and Persians. Even if part of Iperiul Athens, joined the Spartans against the Athenians in the Peloponnese War (431-404 BC). The city was conquered by the Romans in 189 BC but remained an important commercial center. St. Paul founded here an important Christian congregation in sec 1 en The city was cuerit the Goths in 262, but although it was rebuilt, the city has not regained the splendor of old in May. In 431, Ephesus was held at the Third Ecumenical Council. In sec.7 en the city has suffered because it was attacked by the Persians and Arabs, but had to deal with a massive earthquake which partly destroyed. Ephesus flourished in sec 10, 11 AD but, in sec14 e.n. port began to no longer use by retailers, which led to the decline of the city and leaving lu by residents. Excavations began in 1863 and have revealed much of the city including temples, public buildings, shops, houses, streets, a magnificent theater and churches. Greek sculptors and Polyclitus Fidias works were discovered and restuarate.


Ephesus is near Miletus, a city of ancient Greece on the west coast of Asia Minor, the most prosperous of the 12 Ionian cities. Miletus was located at the mouth uniu river that flows into the Sea of ​​Marmara, as trade developed on the water, the city with much to gain from this. The city was famous for woolen clothes made here, great quality clothes. Residents have established several colonies in Miletus North: Propontis, Black Sea, which helped the city’s economic development.
Miletus was attacked several times but managed to repel lydieni attacks, until it was conquered by King Croesus in BC sec.6. Then Miletus fell prey to the Persians. After unsuccessful attempts to escape the Persian , Miletus was dropped under Persian rule and rebuilt in Roman times. ICEP decline or when all port city was sunk in a huge wave. Milet is the home town of personalities of ancient Greece: Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes.

Turkish coastal cities-resorts

The most beautiful are Marmaris and Kemer, Mediterranean seaside towns that spring through autumn are full of tourists attracted by the abundance of hotels and the beauty of the Mediterranean. Located near the cities Izmir and Antalya respectively, tourists can come to Kemer and Marmaris plane. From the airport are special races who go directly to the hotel. Shops, restaurants, all filled with special lighting beautifies the night scenery on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Every day, hundreds of boats leaving the shore excursions that are high and the others go to the island of Rhodes. The beaches are always full, this settlements bringing significant revenues to Turkey.

North of the Taurus Mountains, 14 km from the city of Denizli Pamukkale village lies a unique natural wonder of the world. Calcareous waters rise to the surface at a temp. 35 degrees Celsius-white stalactite formations yellow so the place is called Cotton Castle. Pamukkale is located at 19km from the city of Denizli, western Turciei.O’s other attraction is the Pamukkale and hotel built next to the springs of thermal water pools forming true naturale.Pe near karst topography, another attraction of the village are the ruins of Hierapolis, ancient city built in 190 BC. Eumenus second by King, King of Pergamon. Tourists can see the ruins of St. Philip Tomb, a theater, the Temple of Apollo. 5 km from Pamukkale is a Spa which is called Karahaylt where water reaches high concentrations of iron Turkey.

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  1. […] of amazing sites and vacation locations in Turkey is long. With so many compelling places to visit, Turkey is one of the world’s most celebrated tourist locations. If you are looking for creative, fun […]

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